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The Treaty of Paris ceded the country to Great Britain in During this period the country was routinely engaged in turmoil, with massacres and battles occurring among the tribes. Prior to the American Revolution, Britain thinly exercised sovereignty over Ohio Country by lackadaisical garrisoning of the French forts.

By the Royal Proclamation of , British lands west of Appalachia were forbidden to settlement by colonists. The Treaty of Fort Stanwix in explicitly reserved lands north and west of the Ohio as Indian lands. British military occupation in the region contributed to the outbreak of Pontiac's Rebellion in Ohio Indians participated in that war until an armed expedition in Ohio led by Colonel Henry Bouquet brought about a truce.

Another colonial military expedition into the Ohio Country in brought Lord Dunmore's War to a conclusion. In , Britain passed the Quebec Act that formally annexed Ohio and other western lands to the Province of Quebec in order to provide a civil government and to centralize British administration of the Montreal-based fur trade.

The prohibition of settlement west of the Appalachians remained, contributing to the American Revolution. As a result of the exploits of George Rogers Clark in , Ohio Country including the territory of the future state of Ohio as well as eastern Illinois Country, became Illinois County, Virginia by claim of conquest under the Virginia Colony charter.

The county was dissolved in and ceded to the United States. Early in the American Revolutionary War , the Continental Congress signed the Treaty of Fort Pitt with the Lenape people, which should have guaranteed that all Native lands of Ohio, excepting the Western Reserve, would become a state explicitly under control of the Native peoples who inhabited it in return for their supporting the patriot cause, however a breakdown in communication led to the Ohio Natives' not properly responding and the Continental Congress's assumption that they wanted no part in the union, but to maintain their own sovereignty, therefore the treaty was never fulfilled and many of Ohio's Native peoples were left in confusion as to who to support during the war, leading to their people's being regularly victimized by both sides.

Cornstalk Shawnee and White Eyes Delaware sought to remain friendly with the rebellious colonists. There was major fighting in Cornstalk was killed by American militiamen, and White Eyes may have been.

One of the most tragic incidents of the war—the killing of 96 Christian Munsee and Christian Mahicans by U. Though Crawford was not at Gnadenhutten, in revenge, he was tortured for hours then burned at the stake.

With the American victory in the Revolutionary War, the British ceded Ohio and its territory in the West as far as the Mississippi River to the new nation. Between and , the states of Virginia, Massachusetts and Connecticut ceded their earlier land claims in Ohio Country to Congress, but Virginia and Connecticut maintained reserves. He was one of the most highly respected men in the early years of the United States. In , the Continental Army had encircled the British Army in Boston, but could not dislodge it, and a long stalemate ensued.

Putnam created a method of building portable fortifications, which were put in place under cover of darkness, along with cannon. This then drove the British from Boston. George Washington was so impressed that he made Putnam his chief engineer.

After the war, Putnam and Manasseh Cutler were instrumental in creating the Northwest Ordinance , which opened up the Northwest Territory for settlement. This land was used to serve as compensation for what was owed to Revolutionary War veterans. Putnam organized and led the first group of veterans to the territory. They settled at Marietta, Ohio , where they built a large fort called Campus Martius. Putnam and Cutler insisted that the Northwest Territory would be free territory - no slavery.

They were both from Puritan New England, and the Puritans strongly believed that slavery was morally wrong. The Northwest Territory doubled the size of the United States, and establishing it as free of slavery proved to be of tremendous importance in the following decades. Had those states been slave states, and their electoral votes gone to Abraham Lincoln 's main competitor, Lincoln would not have been elected president.

The Civil War would not have been fought. And, even if eventually there had been a civil war, the North would probably have lost. Putnam, in the Puritan tradition, was influential in establishing education in the Northwest Territory. Substantial amounts of land were set aside for schools. Putnam had been one of the primary benefactors in the founding of Leicester Academy in Massachusetts, and similarly, in , he created the plan for the construction of the Muskingum Academy now Marietta College in Ohio.

In , the directors of the Ohio Company appointed him superintendent of all its affairs relating to settlement north of the Ohio River. In , he served in the convention to form a constitution for the State of Ohio. Starting even before the war, and accelerating with the establishment of Fort Henry across the Ohio River in West Virginia, numerous settlers encroached on Indian lands west of the Ohio River in a broad arc from west of Fort Henry as far upriver as where Fort Steuben today Steubenville was later established.

That there was continuous occupation of such lands is certain, though the location and continuity of any particular settlement, at least a few of which were referred to loosely as "towns" is very much in doubt. Most prominent among these were a series of squatters settlements with various names circa to in the area of what is today Martin's Ferry, directly across river from Fort Henry. European settlement of Ohio may fairly be said to have been in progression before establishment of the Northwest Territory and the first generally recognized town of Marietta.

Ebenezer Sproat became a shareholder of the Ohio Company of Associates , and was engaged as a surveyor with the company. Correspondingly, the first church in Marietta was a Congregationalist church which was constructed Colonel Sproat, was a notable member of the pioneer settlement of Marietta. He greatly impressed the local Indians , who in admiration dubbed him "Hetuck", meaning "eye of the buck deer" "Big Buckeye".

The Miami Company also referred to as the "Symmes Purchase" managed settlement of land in the southwestern section. A heavy flood of migrants came from New York and especially New England, where there had been a growing hunger for land as population increased before the Revolutionary War.

Most traveled to Ohio by wagon and stagecoach , following former Indian paths such as the Northern Trace. Many also traveled part of the way by barges on the Mohawk River across New York state. Farmers who settled in western New York after the war sometimes moved on to one or more locations in Ohio in their lifetimes, as new lands kept opening to the west.

Two years after the Revolution, the US had begun offering people subsidies to move into the Ohio and Tennessee River Valleys to establish farms and virtually all Native people's in the threatened territories joined forces and fought back. They ceded much of present-day Ohio to the United States by the Treaty of Greenville , concluded in The last known full blood Wyandot to live in Ohio was Bill Moose — Also Mohawk and Brotherton Narragansett families as well.

Starting in the early 19th century, after the acquisition of the Louisiana Purchase, Congress began investing heavily in trying to convince Natives in the East to relocate west of the Mississippi. The Lenape were a test, and were removed in , but when they complained that the natives of that region were being aggressive towards them and there wasn't enough to hunt and forage, the project was scrapped for several more decades.

The U. Congress prohibited slavery in the territory. Once the population grew and the territory achieved statehood, the citizens could have legalized slavery, but chose not to do so. The states of the Midwest would be known as Free States, in contrast to those states south of the Ohio River. Migrants to the latter came chiefly from Virginia and other slave-holding states, and brought their culture and slaves with them.

As Northeastern states abolished slavery in the coming two generations, the free states would be known as Northern States. As Ohio prepared for statehood, Indiana Territory was carved out, reducing the Northwest Territory to approximately the size of present-day Ohio plus the eastern half of Michigan 's lower peninsula and a sliver of land in southeastern Indiana along Ohio's western border called "The Gore".

With Ohio's population reaching 45, in December , Congress determined that the population was growing rapidly and Ohio could begin the path to statehood. The assumption was the territory would have in excess of the required 60, residents by the time it became a state.

Congress passed the Enabling Act of that outlined the process for Ohio to seek statehood. The residents convened a constitutional convention. They used numerous provisions from other states and rejected slavery. On February 19, , President Jefferson signed the act of Congress that approved Ohio's boundaries and constitution.

Congress did not pass a specific resolution formally admitting Ohio as the 17th state. The current custom of Congress' declaring an official date of statehood did not begin until , when Louisiana was admitted as the 18th state. Starting around , the Shawnee began to feel restless again. When the war of began, the English decided to attack from Canada into Ohio and merge their forces with the Shawnee.

This continued until Tecumseh was killed at the Battle of the Thames in While most of the Shawnee fought, many stayed out of the conflict- particularly in the groups referred to as the Piqua and Makojay, due to the influence of a Chief Black Hoof. The Piqua would later be removed during the Indian Removals following the Trail of Tears, however the Makojay vanished into thin air after Blackhoof's death.

In , the United Kingdom and the United States got into a dispute because the UK kept invading American ships, claiming random people to be English draft dodgers and taking them away to fight in the British Royal Navy in the Napoleonic Wars. In addition, British officials operating from Canada harbored and armed the Native Indians into attacking American settlers mainly in an effort to establish a pro-British Indian barrier state in U. After several requests to stop these activities went unanswered, the US invaded Canada, laying siege to the cities of Montreal and Quebec, prompting a British military response.

Ohio played a key role in the War of , as it was on the front line in the Western theater and the scene of several notable battles both on land and in Lake Erie.

The British eventually surrendered to Oliver Hazard Perry. Tecumseh had approached several tribes for help beforehand, but all had ignored his pleas, despite support. The Red Sticks, a faction of Shawnee supporters among the Muscogee, or Creek Confederacy, broke loose and began attacking military installations in retaliation to his death. Other Muscogee Creeks who didn't support war took care of the problem themselves before it got out of hand.

Ultimately, after the United States government used the Indian Removal Act of to force countless Native American tribes on the Trail of Tears, where all the southern states except for Florida were successfully emptied of Native peoples, the US government panicked because a majority of tribes did not want to be forced out of their own lands.

Fearing further wars between Native tribes and American settlers, they pushed all remaining Native tribes in the East to migrate west against their own will, including all remaining tribes in Ohio. In , the United States sent 7, soldiers to remove 16, Cherokee by force. Whites looted their homes. The largest Trail of Tears began, eventually taking 4, Indian lives. The Removal Act opened 25 million acres to white settlement and slavery.

They return home, and their chief pulls a knife at a tribal council and lands in jail. Throughout much of the 19th century, industry was rapidly introduced to complement an existing agricultural economy. One of the first iron manufacturing plants opened near Youngstown in called Hopewell Furnace. By the midth century, 48 blast furnaces were operating in the state, most in the southern portions of the state. The first Bessemer converter was purchased by the Cleveland Rolling Mill Company , which eventually became part of the U.

Armco , now AK Steel, was founded in Middletown also in Tobacco processing plants were founded in Dayton by the s and Cincinnati became known as "Porkopolis" in being the nation's capital of pork processing, and by it was the third largest manufacturing city in the country. Manufacturers produced farming machinery, including Cincinnati residents Cyrus McCormick , who invented the reaper, and Obed Hussey , who developed an early version of the mower. By , 86 oil refineries were operating in Cleveland , the home of Standard Oil , making it the "oil capital of the world", [58] while producing the world's first billionaire, John D.

Herbert H. Dow founded the Dow Chemical Company in Cleveland in , today the world's second largest chemical manufacturer. In Frank Seiberling named his rubber company after the first person to vulcanize rubber, Charles Goodyear , which today is known as Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company.

Seeing the need to replace steel-rimmed carriage tires with rubber, Harvey Firestone started Firestone Tire and Rubber Company and began selling to Henry Ford. By the late 19th century, Ohio had become a global industrial center. Michael Joseph Owens invented the first semi-automatic glass-blowing machine while working for the Toledo Glass Company.

Wilbur and Orville Wright invented the first airplane in Dayton. Charles Kettering invented the first automatic starter for automobiles, and was the co-founder of Delco Electronics , today part of Delphi Corporation.

The Battelle Memorial Institute perfected xerography, resulting in the company Xerox. At Cincinnati's Children's Hospital, Albert Sabin developed the first oral polio vaccine, which was administered throughout the world. In , Joseph McVicker tested a wallpaper cleaner in Cincinnati schools, eventually becoming known as the product Play-Doh. The same year the Tappan Stove Company created the first microwave oven made for commercial, home use. James Spangler invented the first commercially successful portable vacuum cleaner, which he sold to The Hoover Company.

African American inventors based in Ohio achieved prominence. After witnessing a car and carriage crash, Garrett Morgan invented one of the earliest traffic lights ; he was a leader in the Cleveland Association of Colored Men. Frederick McKinley Jones invented refrigeration devices for transportation which ultimately led to the Thermo King Corporation.

In Cincinnati, Granville Woods invented the telegraphony, which he sold to a telephone company. John P. Parker of Ripley invented the Parker Pulverizer and screw for tobacco processes.

Ohio's economic growth was aided by their pursuit of infrastructure. By the late s, the National Road crossed the Appalachian Mountains , connecting Ohio with the east coast. The Ohio River aided the agricultural economy by allowing farmers to move their goods by water to the southern states and the port of New Orleans. The construction of the Erie Canal in the s allowed Ohio businesses to ship their goods through Lake Erie and to the east coast, which was followed by the completion of the Ohio and Erie Canal and the connection of Lake Erie with the Ohio River.

This gave the state complete water access to the world within the borders of the United States. Other canals included Miami and Erie Canal. The first railroad in Ohio was a mile line completed in called the Erie and Kalamazoo Railroad , connecting Toledo with Adrian, Michigan.

The Ohio Loan Law of allowed the state to loan one-third of construction costs to businesses, passed initially to aid the construction of canals, but instead used heavily for the construction of railroads. The Little Miami Railroad was granted a state charter in and was completed in , connecting Cincinnati with Springfield. Construction of a commuter rail began in called the Cincinnati, Hamilton, and Dayton Railroad.

This allowed the affluent of Cincinnati to move to newly developed communities outside the city along the rail. The Ohio and Mississippi Railroad was given financial support from the city of Cincinnati and eventually connected them with St. Louis , while the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad crossed the Appalachians in the mids and connected the state with the east coast. The investment in infrastructure complemented Ohio's central location and put it at the heart of the nation's transportation system traveling north and south and east and west, and also gave the state a headstart during the national industrialization process which occurred between and The Port of Cincinnati was built on the Ohio River.

Following the commercialization of air travel, Ohio became a key route for east to west transportation. The first commercial cargo flight occurred between Dayton and Columbus in Cleveland Hopkins International Airport was built in and became home to the first air traffic control tower, ground to air radio control, airfield lighting system, and commuter rail link. The Interstate Highway System brought new travel routes to the state in the midth century, further making Ohio a transportation hub.

With the rapid increase of industrialization in the country in the late 19th century, Ohio's population swelled from 2. By , nine Ohio cities had populations of 50, or more. The rapid urbanization brought about a growth of commercial industries in the state, including many financial and insurance institutions.

Cleveland's Society for Savings was founded in , eventually becoming part of KeyBank. Major retail operations emerged in the state, including Kroger in in Cincinnati, today second only to Walmart.

Federated Department Stores was founded in Columbus in , known today as Macy's. The Sherwin-Williams Company was founded in in Cleveland. Frisch's Big Boy was opened in in Cincinnati. American Electric Power was founded in Columbus in The Cleveland Clinic was founded in and presently is one of the world's leading medical institutions.

Education has been an integral part of Ohio culture since its early days of statehood. In the beginning, mothers usually educated their children at home or paid for their children to attend smaller schools in villages and towns. In the state passed a tax to finance local schools. Atwater modeled his plan after the New York City public school system.

After public opinion in forced the state to find a resolution to the education problem, the legislature established the common school system in and financed it with a half-million property levy. They ultimately chose to relax state authority over school curriculum and gave Ohio schools regional authority over the matter. It would remain as such until the 20th century, but has caused a fairly erratic, confusing and sometimes lacking schooling experience in some subjects, even if generally adequate to get by.

School districts formed, and by the first direct tax was levied allowing access to school for all. McGuffey Readers was a leading textbook originating from the state and found throughout the nation.

Original universities and colleges in the state included the Ohio University , founded in Athens , in , the first university in the old Northwest Territory and ninth-oldest in the United States.

Wilberforce University was founded in and the University of Akron and Ohio State University followed in , with the University of Toledo in The first dental school in the United States was founded in the early 19th century in Bainbridge. The Ohio School for the Blind became the first of its kind in the country, located in Columbus. After , Ohio State government began experimentally exerting more control over schools, as they attempted to help the state's education system evolve with the times.

As of , it largely seems to have done just as much harm as good and re-exposed a lot of the issues inherent in how Ohio schooling was originally organized, which they are now desperately trying to solve. In , Governor Ted Strickland signed legislation organizing the University System of Ohio , the nation's largest comprehensive public system of higher education. Rural Ohio in the 19th century was noted for its religious diversity, tolerance and pluralism, according to Smith With so many active denominations, no one dominated and, increasingly, tolerance became the norm.

Germans from Pennsylvania and from Germany brought Lutheran and Reformed churches and numerous smaller sects such as the Amish. Yankees brought Presbyterians and Congregationalists. The building of many denominational liberal arts colleges was a distinctive feature of the 19th century. By the s German and Irish Catholics were moving into the cities, and after the s Catholics from eastern and southern Europe arrived in the larger cities, mining camps, and small industrial centers.

Jews and Eastern Orthodox settlements added to the pluralism, as did the building of black Baptists and Methodist churches in the cities. He was the editor of the influential national magazine the Independent after , and as pastor of the First Congregational Church of Columbus, Ohio from to his death in Gladden crusaded for Prohibition, resolving conflicts between labor and capital; he often denounced racial violence and lynching.

Early Ohio state culture was a product of Native American cultures, which were pushed away between and This was especially exasperated in the late 19th century, when racial violence against all sorts of people- including Native Americans- reached such a horrifying peak nationwide, that most such people went out of their ways to seem as white as possible.

It was easier for people who were only part Native, as most Ohioans no longer knew what such people really looked like and their skin was fair enough that they could claim Italian, Hispanic or Greek descent and disappear into those communities. The Connecticut Western Reserve became the center for modernization and reform. Other early pioneers came from the Mid-Atlantic states, especially Pennsylvania and Virginia , some settling on military grant lands in the Virginia Military District.

From Virginia came members of the Harrison family of Virginia , who rose to prominence in the state, producing Ohio's first of eight U. William Henry Harrison 's campaign of came to represent the pioneer culture of Ohio, symbolized by his Log cabin campaign. The theme song of his campaign, the "Log Cabin Song," [72] was authored by Otway Curry , who was a nationally known poet and author. Ohio was largely agricultural before , although gristmills and local forges were present. Clear-cut gender norms prevailed among the farm families who settled in the Midwestern region between and Men were the breadwinners and financial providers for their families, who considered the profitability of farming in a particular location — or "market-minded agrarianism".

They had an almost exclusive voice regarding public matters, such as voting and handling the money. During the migration westward, women's diaries show little interest in and financial problems, but great concern with the threat of separation from family and friends. Furthermore, women experienced a physical toll because they were expected to have babies, supervise the domestic chores, care for the sick, and take control of the garden crops and poultry.

Outside the German American community, women rarely did fieldwork on the farm. The women set up neighborhood social organizations, often revolving around church membership, or quilting parties. They exchanged information and tips on child-rearing, and helped each other in childbirth.

Large numbers of German Americans arrived from Pennsylvania, augmented by new immigrants from Germany. They all clung to their German language and Protestant religions, as well as their specialized tastes in food and beer. Brewing was a main feature of the German culture.

Their villages from this period included the German Village in Columbus. They also founded the villages of Gnadenhutten in the late 18th century; Bergholz , New Bremen , New Berlin , Dresden , and other villages and towns.

The German Americans immigrating from the Mid-Atlantic states, especially eastern Pennsylvania, brought with them the Midland dialect , which is still found throughout much of Ohio. African Americans of the Underground Railroad began coming to the state, some settling, others passing through on the way to Canada.

Universities and colleges opened up all over the state, creating a more educated culture. By the last half of the 19th century, the state became more diverse culturally with new immigrants from Europe, including Ireland and Germany. Howard Chandler Christy , born in Morgan County , became a leading American artist during this century, as well as composer Dan Emmett , founder of the Blackface tradition. Ohio's mines factories and cities attracted Europeans.

Irish Catholics poured in to construct the canals, railroads, streets and sewers in the s and s. After , the coal mines and steel plants attracted families from southern and eastern Europe. A large influx of people moving into Ohio from neighboring West Virginia and Kentucky also occurred. The sparsely populated regions of Appalachia had largely been stripped of resources by logging and mining companies, leaving little and few prospects for the locals.

Steel and rubber manufacturers were even known to scout these regions for new workers and invested in infrastructure and the building of new suburbs to lure them in. Places like Akron, OH were almost single-handedly built this way, as the modern city was only a small town prior to the early-mid 20th century. Immigration was cut off by the World War in , allowing the ethnic communities to Americanize , grow much more prosperous, served in the military, and abandon possible plans to return to the old country.

Since then, there were larger influxes from the Jewish community, following World War II and a spike in the numbers of Middle Easterners following successive conflicts in the region during the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Ohio has also become a common destination for foreign college students worldwide, with many choosing to remain in the state after.

While Ohio has been the most like a "Melting Pot" than most other places in the US, whereas virtually all arriving cultures largely merged into a homogenous group with very little distinction [ citation needed ] , aside religion, there has been growing public interest in recent years of people returning to their ancestors' roots, forming extraneous shared-culture communities within larger communities, and to ultimately become more of a "mosaic.

Industrialization brought a shift culturally as urbanization and an emerging middle class changed society. Athletics became increasingly popular as the first professional baseball team, the Cincinnati Reds , started playing at that level in , and football leagues emerged.

Bathhouses and rollercoasters became a popular past time with the opening of Cedar Point in Theaters and saloons sprang up, [81] and more restaurants opened. Langston Hughes grew up in Cleveland and developed many of his plays at the Karamu House. The Lincoln Theatre hosted performers like Count Basie. The Taft Theatre opened in in Cincinnati.

The Roaring Twenties brought prohibition, bootlegging and speakeasies to the state, as well as the swing dance culture. However these organizations steadily lost influence after Starting this invention in their bike shop in what is now Dayton's west side, the Wright's brought flight to the world in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The brothers gained the mechanical skills essential to their success by working for years in their Dayton, Ohio-based shop with printing presses, bicycles, motors, and other machinery.

Their work with bicycles in particular influenced their belief that an unstable vehicle such as a flying machine could be controlled and balanced with practice. From until their first powered flights in late , they conducted extensive glider tests that also developed their skills as pilots. Their shop employee Charlie Taylor became an important part of the team, building their first airplane engine in close collaboration with the brothers.

During the s, the Great Depression struck the state hard. American Jews watched the rise of the Third Reich with apprehension. Cleveland residents Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster created the Superman comic character in the spirit of the Jewish golem.

Many of their comics portrayed Superman fighting and defeating the Nazis. Artists, writers, musicians and actors developed in the state and often moved to other cities which were larger centers for their work. Alan Freed , who emerged from the swing dance culture in Cleveland, hosted the first live rock 'n roll concert in Cleveland in Famous filmmakers include Steven Spielberg , Chris Columbus and the original Warner Brothers , who set up their first movie theatre in Youngstown, OH before that company later relocated to California.

The NFL was originally founded in Ohio and the state has since given us many famous stars across various sports. During the Civil War —65 Ohio played a key role in providing troops, military officers, and supplies to the Union army.

Due to its central location and burgeoning population, Ohio was both politically and logistically important to the war effort.

Despite the state's boasting a number of very powerful Republican politicians, it was divided politically. Ohio played an important part in the Underground Railroad prior to the war, and remained a haven for escaped and runaway slaves during the war years. The third most populous state in the Union at the time, Ohio raised nearly , soldiers for the Union army, third behind only New York and Pennsylvania.

Nearly 7, Buckeye soldiers were killed in action. Grant , William T. Sherman , and Philip H. Only two minor battles were fought within its borders. Morgan's Raid in the summer of alarmed the populace. Barracks and outbuildings were constructed for a prisoner of war depot, intended chiefly for officers.

Over three years more than 15, Confederate soldiers were held there. The island includes a Confederate cemetery where about soldiers were buried. There was a plot among prisoners to revolt and escape in The prisoners expected support from Copperheads and Vallandigham, but never did revolt.

Ohio has been involved in regional, national, and global wars since statehood, and veterans have been a powerful social and political force at the local and state levels. The organization of Civil War veterans, the Grand Army of the Republic , was a major player in local society and Republican politics in the last third of the 19th century.

The state has produced Medal of Honor recipients, [91] including the country's first recipient, Jacob Parrott. In , the state authorized the creation of the Ohio Veterans Home in Sandusky and a second one created in in Georgetown to provide for soldiers facing economic hardship.

Over 50, veterans have lived at the Sandusky location as of In , the legislature then passed legislation which nullified the federal court order as well as the operations of the Bank of the United States within their borders. Bank of the United States.

They then followed by passing an act in to withdraw state protections for the Bank of the United States. Although the nullification of in Ohio was inspired by resolutions passed in Virginia and Kentucky in and , the language of their resolution from would find its place in South Carolina's nullification of and secession articles of southern states in The rebellion of firmly rooted the tradition of sovereignty in the state.

In , Governor Salmon P. Chase reaffirmed that tradition, stating: "We have rights which the Federal Government must not invade — rights superior to its power, on which our sovereignty depends; and we mean to assert those rights against all tyrannical assumptions of authority. General Durbin Ward stated: "Fellow citizens of Ohio, I boldly assert that the States of this Union have always had, both before and since the adoption of the Constitution of the United States, entire sovereignty over the whole subject of suffrage in all its relations and bearings.

Ohio has that sovereignty now, and it cannot be taken from her Why is having an Ohio buckeye seed in your pocket good luck? Claim this business. Ohio is located in the midwest towards the northeast of the United States. Bordered by Michigan to the north, Pennsylvania to the east, West Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest and Indiana to the west. What are the 5 major cities in Ohio? Columbus is the capital and largest city by population in Ohio.

The other four major cities include Cleveland , Cincinnati , Toledo , and Akron. What cities are considered northeast Ohio? What is Ohio best known for? Ohio is known as the buckeye state since buckeye trees are abundant in the region.

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Every Bobcat knows this simple truth: the experiences you have at Ohio University will stay with you for life. This community will champion your ambition, equipping you for your career and beyond, actively supporting you every step of the way, forever. Our residential campus in Athens is nestled among the Southeast Ohio foothills. More than 20, students study here. A vibrant Uptown scene never call it "downtown" , and scenic, historic campus combine to make Athens a top-ranked college town. Find your major.

Overview The Florence Retail Tour allows students to get an upclose view of the different aspects of the fashion industry. Set in one of the fashion capitals…. Find your future experiences.

Ohio University offers a world-class education on our residential campus in Athens, our five regional campuses, through extension campuses and centers that serve our professional programs and Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, and online.

Participants in the Food in Sicily study away program can earn six Ohio University credits, learn about the culture of food in Sicily, and get hands-on experience tasting and making Sicilian dishes. Alumna Amanda Epp drove full speed into her career path her junior year at Ohio University, where a year-long internship sparked her entrepreneurial and compassionate spirit. When the United States border closed during the height of the coronavirus pandemic, Ph. OHIO Homepage. Celebrating Martin Luther King Jr.

Other significant earthquakes in Ohio include: [] one of magnitude 4. Notable Ohio earthquakes in the 21st century include one occurring on December 31, , approximately 4 kilometers 2. Ohio's three largest cities are Columbus , Cleveland , and Cincinnati , all three of which anchor major metropolitan areas.

Columbus is the capital of the state, located near its geographic center and is well known for Ohio State University. In , the city had six corporations named to the U. Fast food chains Wendy's and White Castle are also headquartered in Columbus. Located in Northeast Ohio along the Lake Erie shore, Cleveland is characterized by its New England heritage, ethnic immigrant cultures, and history as a major American manufacturing and healthcare center. Mansfield and Youngstown are also major cities in the region.

Cincinnati anchors Southwest Ohio and the Cincinnati Tri-State area , which also encompasses counties in the neighboring states of Kentucky and Indiana.

Toledo and Lima are the major cities in Northwest Ohio, an area known for its glass-making industry. Steubenville is the only metropolitan city in Appalachian Ohio , a region known for its mixed mesophytic forests. The Cincinnati metropolitan area extends into Kentucky and Indiana , the Steubenville metropolitan area extends into West Virginia , and the Youngstown metropolitan area extends into Pennsylvania.

Additionally, 30 Ohio cities function as centers of micropolitan areas , urban clusters smaller than that of metropolitan areas. Many of these are included as part of larger combined statistical areas , as shown in the table above. As of [update] , Ohio's center of population is located in Morrow County , [] in the county seat of Mount Gilead.

As of , Females made up approximately Note: Births in table do not add up because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

In , there were , foreign-born residents in Ohio, corresponding to 4. Of these, , 2. Though predominantly white, Ohio has large black populations in all major metropolitan areas throughout the state, Ohio has a significant Hispanic population made up of Mexicans in Toledo and Columbus, and Puerto Ricans in Cleveland and Columbus, and also has a significant and diverse Asian population in Columbus.

Ancestry groups which the census defines as not including racial terms in the state are: [12] []. About 6.

In addition, 59, spoke a Slavic language and 42, spoke another West Germanic language according to the census. According to the U. Census Bureau , the total number of people employed in was 4,, The total number of unique employer establishments was ,, while the total number of non-employer establishments was , Ohio's unemployment rate stands at 4.

The manufacturing and financial activities sectors each compose Ohio is the largest producer in the country of plastics, rubber, fabricated metals, electrical equipment, and appliances. Ohio is also one of 41 states with its own lottery, [] the Ohio Lottery.

Many major east—west transportation corridors go through Ohio. One of those pioneer routes, known in the early 20th century as "Main Market Route 3", was chosen in to become part of the historic Lincoln Highway which was the first road across America, connecting New York City to San Francisco. The arrival of the Lincoln Highway to Ohio was a major influence on the development of the state.

Upon the advent of the federal numbered highway system in , the Lincoln Highway through Ohio became U. Route Ohio is home to miles km of the historic National Road , now U. Ohio has a highly developed network of roads and interstate highways. Major north—south routes include I in the west through Toledo , Dayton, and Cincinnati, I through the middle of the state from Cleveland through Columbus and Cincinnati into Kentucky , and I in the eastern part of the state from Cleveland through Akron, Canton , New Philadelphia and Marietta south into West Virginia.

Interstate 75 between Cincinnati and Dayton is one of the heaviest traveled sections of interstate in Ohio. Ohio also has a highly developed network of signed state bicycle routes. Many of them follow rail trails , with conversion ongoing. Ohio has several long-distance hiking trails, the most prominent of which is the Buckeye Trail which extends 1, mi 2, km in a loop around the state of Ohio.

Part of it is on roads and part is on wooded trail. Additionally, the North Country Trail the longest of the eleven National Scenic Trails authorized by Congress and the American Discovery Trail a system of recreational trails and roads that collectively form a coast-to-coast route across the mid-tier of the United States pass through Ohio.

Much of these two trails coincide with the Buckeye Trail. Ohio has an extensive rail network, though today most lines carry only freight traffic. Many local freight carriers also exist in the state.

Amtrak , the national passenger railroad, operates three long-distance rail routes through Ohio. The Capitol Limited stops in those cities as well as in Alliance. The Cardinal serves Cincinnati Union Terminal. Columbus is the largest city in the United States without any form of passenger rail. Its Union Station was last served in by the National Limited.

Mass transit exists in many forms in Ohio cities, primarily through bus systems. Ohio has four international airports, four commercial, and two military. Other major airports are located in Toledo and Akron. The state government of Ohio consists of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The executive branch is headed by the governor of Ohio.

The other elected constitutional offices in the executive branch are the secretary of state Frank LaRose , auditor Keith Faber , treasurer Robert Sprague , and attorney general Dave Yost. Each senator represents approximately , constituents.

In order to be enacted into law, a bill must be adopted by both houses of the General Assembly and signed by the Governor. If the Governor vetoes a bill, the General Assembly can override the veto with a three-fifths supermajority of both houses. A bill will also become a law if the Governor fails to sign or veto it within 10 days of its being presented.

The session laws are published in the official Law of Ohio. The General Assembly, with the approval of the Governor, draws the U. The Ohio Apportionment Board draws state legislative district lines in Ohio. There are three levels of the Ohio state judiciary. The lowest level is the court of common pleas: each county maintains its own constitutionally mandated court of common pleas, which maintain jurisdiction over "all justiciable matters".

The state's highest-ranking court is the Ohio Supreme Court. There are also several levels of local government in Ohio: counties , municipalities cities and villages , townships , special districts and school districts.

Ohio is divided into 88 counties. The other counties have a government with a three-member board of county commissioners, [] a sheriff, [] coroner, [] auditor, [] treasurer, [] clerk of the court of common pleas [] prosecutor, [] engineer, [] and recorder. There are two kinds of incorporated municipalities, cities and villages.

City governments provide much more extensive services than county governments, such as police forces and paid as opposed to volunteer fire departments. The entire area of the state is encompassed by townships. There are more than city, local, and exempted village school districts providing K education in Ohio, as well as about four dozen joint vocation school districts which are separate from the K districts.

Each city school district, local school district, or exempted village school district is governed by an elected board of education. Six U. It is also termed "modern mother of presidents", [] in contrast to Virginia's status as the origin of presidents earlier in American history. Seven presidents were born in Ohio, making it second to Virginia's eight. Virginia-born William Henry Harrison lived most of his life in Ohio and is also buried there. Harrison conducted his political career while living on the family compound, founded by his father-in-law, John Cleves Symmes , in North Bend, Ohio.

The seven presidents born in Ohio were Ulysses S. Grant elected from Illinois , Rutherford B. Hayes , James A. Ohio is considered a swing state , being won by either the Democratic or Republican candidates reasonably each election.

As a swing state, Ohio is usually targeted by both major-party campaigns, especially in competitive elections. Historian R. Douglas Hurt asserts that not since Virginia "had a state made such a mark on national political affairs". Dewey in , Richard Nixon in , and Donald Trump in and had the longest perfect streak of any state, voting for the winning presidential candidate in each election from to , and in 33 of the 38 held since the Civil War. No Republican has ever won the presidency without winning Ohio.

As of , there are more than 7. They are disproportionate in age, with a million more over 65 than there are to year-olds. In the Ohio State Senate the Republicans are the majority, 25—8, and in the Ohio House of Representatives the Republicans control the delegation 64— Losing two seats in the U. House of Representatives following the census, Ohio has had 16 seats for the three presidential elections of the decade in , and Marcy Kaptur D- 09 is the most senior member of the Ohio delegation to the U.

House of Representatives. Vance , is a Republican. Since , the state has had a policy of purging infrequent voters from its rolls. Had it not been upheld, thousands of voters would have been purged from the rolls just a few weeks before the election. Still, it has been estimated that the state has removed up to two million voters since In a study, Ohio was ranked as the 17th hardest state for citizens to vote in. Ohio University , the first university in the Northwest Territory , was also the first public institution in Ohio.

Substantively, Ohio's system is similar to those found in other states. At the State level, the Ohio Department of Education, which is overseen by the Ohio State Board of Education , governs primary and secondary educational institutions.

At the municipal level, there are approximately school districts statewide. The Ohio Board of Regents coordinates and assists with Ohio's institutions of higher education which have recently been reorganized into the University System of Ohio under Governor Strickland. The system averages an annual enrollment of more than , students, making it one of the five largest state university systems in the U.

Ohio schools consistently ranking in the top 50 nationally of the U. Ohio is home to some of the nation's highest-ranked public libraries. Hennen Jr. Ohio also offers the OhioLINK program, allowing Ohio's libraries particularly those from colleges and universities access to materials for the other libraries. The program is largely successful in allowing researchers for access to books and other media that might not be otherwise available. Cleveland disc jockey Alan Freed is credited with coining the term and promoting rock and roll in the early s.

Five Ohio musicians [ who? Playhouse Square in downtown Cleveland is the second-largest performing arts center in the United States, home to ten theaters. Cincinnati is home to its own ballet , symphony orchestra , pops orchestra , and opera , all housed at the Cincinnati Music Hall.

Dayton is also home to a ballet, orchestra, and opera, collectively known as the Dayton Performing Arts Alliance. Within the marching arts, Winter Guard International has hosted national championships in performing arts at the University of Dayton 18 times between and , and has permanently since The full list includes:.

The Cincinnati Art Museum holds over , works spanning 6, years of human history, being among the most comprehensive collections in the Midwest. The Cleveland Museum of Art is internationally renowned for its substantial holdings of Asian and Egyptian art, and has a permanent collection of more than 61, works from around the world.

Youngstown's Butler Institute of American Art was the first museum to be dedicated exclusively to American art. Ohio is home to eight professional sports teams across the five different major leagues in the United States.

Despite this success in the NFL in the first half of the 20th century, no Ohio team has won the Super Bowl since its inception in No Ohio team has made an appearance in the Stanley Cup Finals. Baseball's first fully professional team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings of , were organized in Ohio. On a smaller scale, Ohio hosts minor league baseball , arena football , indoor football , mid-level hockey, and lower division soccer. It has also experienced considerable success in the secondary and tertiary tiers of college football divisions.

The football team is second in all-time winning percentage, with a ——53 overall record and a 25—26 bowl record as of The program has produced seven Heisman Trophy winners, forty conference titles, and eight undisputed national championships. Their men's basketball team has over 1, wins, 33 March Madness appearances, and is currently on a nine-year streak of appearances as of The MAC headquarters are in Cleveland.

The Cincinnati—Miami rivalry game has been played in southwest Ohio every year since and is the oldest current non-conference NCAA football rivalry. Xavier's men's basketball has performed particularly well, with 27 March Madness appearances. Article Talk. This article is about the U. For other uses, see Ohio disambiguation. With God, all things are possible [1].

Campbell Hill [8] [b]. Ohio River at Indiana border [8] [b]. OH [13]. Main articles: Prehistory of Ohio and History of Ohio. Main articles: Northwest Ordinance and Northwest Territory. Main articles: Admission to the Union and List of U.

See also: Petroleum industry in Ohio. See also: Climate change in Ohio. See also: List of cities in Ohio. Largest cities or towns in Ohio Source: U. Census [].

More than 20 percent. Religion in Ohio [] Religion Percent Protestant. Main article: Economy of Ohio. See also: Ohio locations by per capita income. Routes in Ohio , and List of state routes in Ohio. Ohio passenger rail. Capitol Limited to Chicago. Lake Shore Limited to Chicago. Cardinal to Chicago. Cardinal to New York City. Capitol Limited to Washington.

See also: List of Ohio railroads and List of Ohio train stations. See also: List of airports in Ohio. Main article: Government of Ohio. Main article: Politics of Ohio. See also: Elections in Ohio and Political party strength in Ohio. Main article: List of colleges and universities in Ohio.

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