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Pre-term babies are more sensitive to painful stimuli than those carried to full term. Another approach, when pain is suspected, is to give the person treatment for pain, and then watch to see whether the suspected indicators of pain subside. The way in which one experiences and responds to pain is related to sociocultural characteristics, such as gender, ethnicity, and age. Their ability to recognize pain may be blunted by illness or the use of medication.

Depression may also keep older adult from reporting they are in pain. Decline in self-care may also indicate the older adult is experiencing pain. They may be reluctant to report pain because they do not want to be perceived as weak, or may feel it is impolite or shameful to complain, or they may feel the pain is a form of deserved punishment. Cultural barriers may also affect the likelihood of reporting pain. Patients may feel that certain treatments go against their religious beliefs.

They may not report pain because they feel it is a sign that death is near. Many people fear the stigma of addiction, and avoid pain treatment so as not to be prescribed potentially addicting drugs. Many Asians do not want to lose respect in society by admitting they are in pain and need help, believing the pain should be borne in silence, while other cultures feel they should report pain immediately to receive immediate relief.

Gender can also be a perceived factor in reporting pain. Gender differences can be the result of social and cultural expectations, with women expected to be more emotional and show pain, and men more stoic. Pain is a symptom of many medical conditions. Knowing the time of onset, location, intensity, pattern of occurrence continuous, intermittent, etc. For example, chest pain described as extreme heaviness may indicate myocardial infarction , while chest pain described as tearing may indicate aortic dissection.

Functional magnetic resonance imaging brain scanning has been used to measure pain, and correlates well with self-reported pain. Nociceptive pain is caused by stimulation of sensory nerve fibers that respond to stimuli approaching or exceeding harmful intensity nociceptors , and may be classified according to the mode of noxious stimulation. The most common categories are "thermal" e. Some nociceptors respond to more than one of these modalities and are consequently designated polymodal.

Nociceptive pain may also be classed according to the site of origin and divided into "visceral", "deep somatic" and "superficial somatic" pain. Visceral structures e. Visceral pain is diffuse, difficult to locate and often referred to a distant, usually superficial, structure.

It may be accompanied by nausea and vomiting and may be described as sickening, deep, squeezing, and dull. Examples include sprains and broken bones. Superficial somatic pain is initiated by activation of nociceptors in the skin or other superficial tissue, and is sharp, well-defined and clearly located.

Examples of injuries that produce superficial somatic pain include minor wounds and minor first degree burns. Neuropathic pain is caused by damage or disease affecting any part of the nervous system involved in bodily feelings the somatosensory system. Peripheral neuropathic pain is often described as "burning", "tingling", "electrical", "stabbing", or "pins and needles". Some manifestations of neuropathic pain include: traumatic neuropathy, tic douloureux , painful diabetic neuropathy , and postherpetic neuralgia.

Nociplastic pain is pain characterized by a changed nociception but without evidence of real or threatened tissue damage, or without disease or damage in the somatosensory system. Psychogenic pain, also called psychalgia or somatoform pain , is pain caused, increased or prolonged by mental, emotional or behavioral factors.

However, specialists consider that it is no less actual or hurtful than pain from any other source. People with long-term pain frequently display psychological disturbance, with elevated scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scales of hysteria , depression and hypochondriasis the " neurotic triad ".

Some investigators have argued that it is this neuroticism that causes acute pain to turn chronic, but clinical evidence points the other direction, to chronic pain causing neuroticism. When long-term pain is relieved by therapeutic intervention, scores on the neurotic triad and anxiety fall, often to normal levels. Self-esteem , often low in chronic pain patients, also shows improvement once pain has resolved. Pain can be treated through a variety of methods.

The most appropriate method depends upon the situation. Management of chronic pain can be difficult and may require the coordinated efforts of a pain management team, which typically includes medical practitioners , clinical pharmacists, clinical psychologists , physiotherapists , occupational therapists , physician assistants , and nurse practitioners.

Inadequate treatment of pain is widespread throughout surgical wards, intensive care units , and accident and emergency departments , in general practice , in the management of all forms of chronic pain including cancer pain, and in end of life care.

The International Association for the Study of Pain advocates that the relief of pain should be recognized as a human right , that chronic pain should be considered a disease in its own right, and that pain medicine should have the full status of a medical specialty. Acute pain is usually managed with medications such as analgesics and anesthetics.

Sugar sucrose when taken by mouth reduces pain in newborn babies undergoing some medical procedures a lancing of the heel, venipuncture , and intramuscular injections. Sugar does not remove pain from circumcision , and it is unknown if sugar reduces pain for other procedures. Individuals with more social support experience less cancer pain, take less pain medication, report less labor pain and are less likely to use epidural anesthesia during childbirth, or suffer from chest pain after coronary artery bypass surgery.

Suggestion can significantly affect pain intensity. This placebo effect is more pronounced in people who are prone to anxiety, and so anxiety reduction may account for some of the effect, but it does not account for all of it. Placebos are more effective for intense pain than mild pain; and they produce progressively weaker effects with repeated administration. A number of meta-analyses have found clinical hypnosis to be effective in controlling pain associated with diagnostic and surgical procedures in both adults and children, as well as pain associated with cancer and childbirth.

The authors concluded that "although the findings provide support for the general applicability of hypnosis in the treatment of chronic pain, considerably more research will be needed to fully determine the effects of hypnosis for different chronic-pain conditions.

An analysis of the 13 highest quality studies of pain treatment with acupuncture , published in January , concluded there was little difference in the effect of real, faked and no acupuncture. For chronic long-term lower back pain , spinal manipulation produces tiny, clinically insignificant , short-term improvements in pain and function, compared with sham therapy and other interventions.

A quarter reported having experienced recurrent or continuous pain for three months or more, and a third of these reported frequent and intense pain. The intensity of chronic pain was higher for girls, and girls' reports of chronic pain increased markedly between ages 12 and Physical pain is a universal experience, and a strong motivator of human and animal behavior.

The deliberate infliction of pain and the medical management of pain are both important aspects of biopower , a concept that encompasses the "set of mechanisms through which the basic biological features of the human species became the object of a political strategy".

In various contexts, the deliberate infliction of pain in the form of corporal punishment is used as retribution for an offence, for the purpose of disciplining or reforming a wrongdoer, or to deter attitudes or behaviour deemed unacceptable. In Western societies, the intentional infliction of severe pain torture was principally used to extract confession prior to its abolition in the latter part of the 19th century. Torture as a means to punish the citizen has been reserved for offences posing severe threat to the social fabric for example, treason.

Many cultures use painful ritual practices as a catalyst for psychological transformation. Beliefs about pain play an important role in sporting cultures. Pain may be viewed positively, exemplified by the 'no pain, no gain' attitude, with pain seen as an essential part of training.

Sporting culture tends to normalise experiences of pain and injury and celebrate athletes who 'play hurt'. Pain has psychological, social, and physical dimensions, and is greatly influenced by cultural factors. Specialists believe that all vertebrates can feel pain, and that certain invertebrates, like the octopus, may also.

While plants , as living beings, can perceive and communicate physical stimuli and damage, they do not feel pain simply because of the lack of any pain receptors, nerves, or a brain, [] and, by extension, lack of consciousness. The primary reason for this is that, unlike the members of the animal kingdom whose evolutionary successes and failures are shaped by suffering, the evolution of plants are simply shaped by life and death.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of distressing and unpleasant feeling. This article is about physical pain. For mental or emotional pain, see Psychological pain. For other uses, see Pain disambiguation. Medical condition. Main article: Chronic pain. Main article: Phantom pain.

Main articles: Pain asymbolia and Congenital insensitivity to pain. For other uses, see Painless disambiguation. See also: History of pain theory. See also: Pain assessment , Pain scales , and Pain ladder. Main article: Visual analogue scale. See also: Pain and dementia and Pain in babies.

Main article: Nociception. Main article: Neuropathic pain. Main article: Nociplastic pain. Main article: Psychogenic pain. Main article: Pain management. Further information: Pain management in children and Pain management during childbirth. Main articles: Pain in animals and Pain in invertebrates. September PMC PMID Understanding Pain : Exploring the Perception of Pain.

Cambridge, Mass. Chapter 1. ISBN OCLC In: The Handbook of Chronic Pain. Nova Biomedical Books. Archived from the original on 30 March Retrieved 3 February The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. British Journal of Anaesthesia. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. In Williams KD ed. East Sussex: Psychology Press.

January A Latin Dictionary. Archived from the original on 13 May — via Perseus Digital Library. A Greek-English Lexicon. Archived from the original on 28 July — via Online Etymology Dictionary.

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Archived from the original PDF on 19 October Measurement of subjective responses. New York: Oxford University Press. London: Penguin. Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 12 January Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage Alt URL [ permanent dead link ] Derived from Bonica JJ June Retrieved 12 October Feeling pain and being in pain 2nd ed.

Archived from the original on 27 September Grand Rapids, Mich: Zondervan Publ. Clinical Infectious Diseases. Seminars in Neurology. The Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Current Pain and Headache Reports. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. Personality Characteristics of Patients With Pain. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. Models of Pain Perception. Elsevier Health, American Journal of Psychology. JSTOR Pain: psychological perspectives. Mahwah, N. J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. The management of pain. Origins of neuroscience: a history of explorations into brain function.

Pharmacology of pain. Psychology of pain. New York: Wiley. Chichester, UK: Wiley. Annual Review of Neuroscience. Retrieved 24 January Neurosurgery Clinics of North America. Bibcode : Sci Archived from the original PDF on 14 January Manchester: Manchester University Press. Handbook of Motivation Science. New York: The Guilford Press. Retrieved 18 November The Greatest Show on Earth. Free Press.

Evolutionary Psychology. The divided mind: the epidemic of mindbody disorders. New York: ReganBooks. The Journal of Pain. Boston: Pearson. Fundamentals of nursing : the art and science of person-centered nursing care. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health. Taber's cyclopedic medical dictionary. Philadelphia: F. The Canadian Journal of Nursing Research. Nursing practice theories related to cognition, bodily pain, and man-environment interactions. More recently, McCaffery defined pain as "whatever the experiencing person says it is, existing whenever the experiencing person says it does.

Pain: clinical manual. Louis: Mosby. Emergency Medicine Journal. Medical-surgical nursing: Assessment and management of clinical problems 10th ed. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier.

Louis, Mo: Elsevier Saunders. People in Pain. Symbolic Interaction. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 20 July The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 17 July Archived from the original on 15 April Is this patient having a myocardial infarction? The American Journal of Medicine. Bibcode : PLoSO Medical News Today. Archived from the original on 25 September Retrieved 25 September The computer can tell".

Archived from the original on 17 June Clinical pain management: Cancer pain 2 ed. London: Hodder Arnold. The Journal of Supportive Oncology. Archived from the original PDF on 7 January Retrieved 8 January Cleveland Clinic. Archived from the original on 14 July In Weiner RS ed. You might feel 'pains' when hungry, but their recurrence makes them 'pangs'. Accessed 17 Jan. Nglish: Translation of pain for Spanish Speakers. Britannica English: Translation of pain for Arabic Speakers. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free!

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