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Data Warehouse. Javatpoint Services JavaTpoint offers too many high quality services. Why CAN? The following are the applications of CAN protocol: Automotive passenger vehicles, trucks, buses Electronic equipment for aviation and navigation Industrial automation and mechanical control Elevator and escalators Building automation Medical instruments and equipment Marine, medical, industrial, medical CAN layered architecture As we know that the OSI model partitions the communication system into 7 different layers.
Let's understand both the layers. Data-link layer: This layer is responsible for node to node data transfer. It allows you to establish and terminate the connection. It is also responsible for detecting and correcting the errors that may occur at the physical layer.
It defines how devices in a network gain access to the medium. It provides Encapsulation and Decapsulation of data, Error detection, and signaling. It is responsible for frame acceptance filtering, overload notification, and recovery management. Physical layer: The physical layer is responsible for the transmission of raw data. It defines the specifications for the parameters such as voltage level, timing, data rates, and connector.
The high- speed CAN allows data rate upto 1 Mbps used in the power train and the charges area of the vehicle. It allows data rate upto kbps, and the low speed CAN is used where the speed of communication is not a critical factor. It is of 1 bit. Identifier: A standard data format defined under the CAN 2. Basically, this message identifier sets the priority of the data frame.
It is of 1-bit. Control field: It has user-defined functions. A dominant IDE bit defines the bit standard identifier, whereas recessive IDE bit defines the bit extended identifier. It is of 4 bits. Data field: The data field can contain upto 8 bytes. CRC field: The data frame also contains a cyclic redundancy check field of 15 bit, which is used to detect the corruption if it occurs during the transmission time.
If the CRC does not match, then the receiver will generate the error. ACK field: This is the receiver's acknowledgment. In other protocols, a separate packet for an acknowledgment is sent after receiving all the packets, but in case of CAN protocol, no separate packet is sent for an acknowledgment. It contains 7 consecutive recessive bits known End of frame. Now we will see how data is transmitted through the CAN network. CAN node consists of three elements which are given below: Host A host is a microcontroller or microprocessor which is running some application to do a specific job.
The exact voltages for a logical 0 or 1 depend on the physical layer used, but the basic principle of CAN requires that each node listen to the data on the CAN network including the transmitting node s itself themselves.
If a logical 1 is transmitted by all transmitting nodes at the same time, then a logical 1 is seen by all of the nodes, including both the transmitting node s and receiving node s.
If a logical 0 is transmitted by all transmitting node s at the same time, then a logical 0 is seen by all nodes. If a logical 0 is being transmitted by one or more nodes, and a logical 1 is being transmitted by one or more nodes, then a logical 0 is seen by all nodes including the node s transmitting the logical 1.
When a node transmits a logical 1 but sees a logical 0, it realizes that there is a contention and it quits transmitting. By using this process, any node that transmits a logical 1 when another node transmits a logical 0 "drops out" or loses the arbitration. A node that loses arbitration re-queues its message for later transmission and the CAN frame bit-stream continues without error until only one node is left transmitting.
This means that the node that transmits the first 1 loses arbitration. Since the 11 or 29 for CAN 2. For example, consider an bit ID CAN network, with two nodes with IDs of 15 binary representation, and 16 binary representation, If these two nodes transmit at the same time, each will first transmit the start bit then transmit the first six zeros of their ID with no arbitration decision being made.
When this happens, the node with the ID of 16 knows it transmitted a 1, but sees a 0 and realizes that there is a collision and it lost arbitration. Node 16 stops transmitting which allows the node with ID of 15 to continue its transmission without any loss of data. The node with the lowest ID will always win the arbitration, and therefore has the highest priority.
Decreasing the bit rate allows longer network distances e. The improved CAN FD standard allows increasing the bit rate after arbitration and can increase the speed of the data section by a factor of up to ten or more of the arbitration bit rate.
Message IDs must be unique  on a single CAN bus, otherwise two nodes would continue transmission beyond the end of the arbitration field ID causing an error. In the early s, the choice of IDs for messages was done simply on the basis of identifying the type of data and the sending node; however, as the ID is also used as the message priority, this led to poor real-time performance.
All nodes on the CAN network must operate at the same nominal bit rate, but noise, phase shifts, oscillator tolerance and oscillator drift mean that the actual bit rate might not be the nominal bit rate. Synchronization is important during arbitration since the nodes in arbitration must be able to see both their transmitted data and the other nodes' transmitted data at the same time.
Synchronization is also important to ensure that variations in oscillator timing between nodes do not cause errors. Synchronization starts with a hard synchronization on the first recessive to dominant transition after a period of bus idle the start bit.
Resynchronization occurs on every recessive to dominant transition during the frame. The CAN controller expects the transition to occur at a multiple of the nominal bit time. If the transition does not occur at the exact time the controller expects it, the controller adjusts the nominal bit time accordingly. The adjustment is accomplished by dividing each bit into a number of time slices called quanta, and assigning some number of quanta to each of the four segments within the bit: synchronization, propagation, phase segment 1 and phase segment 2.
The number of quanta the bit is divided into can vary by controller, and the number of quanta assigned to each segment can be varied depending on bit rate and network conditions.
A transition that occurs before or after it is expected causes the controller to calculate the time difference and lengthen phase segment 1 or shorten phase segment 2 by this time. This effectively adjusts the timing of the receiver to the transmitter to synchronize them. This resynchronization process is done continuously at every recessive to dominant transition to ensure the transmitter and receiver stay in sync. Continuously resynchronizing reduces errors induced by noise, and allows a receiving node that was synchronized to a node which lost arbitration to resynchronize to the node which won arbitration.
The CAN protocol, like many networking protocols, can be decomposed into the following abstraction layers :. Most of the CAN standard applies to the transfer layer. The transfer layer receives messages from the physical layer and transmits those messages to the object layer. The transfer layer is responsible for bit timing and synchronization, message framing, arbitration, acknowledgement, error detection and signaling, and fault confinement.
It performs:. CAN bus ISO originally specified the link layer protocol with only abstract requirements for the physical layer, e. The electrical aspects of the physical layer voltage, current, number of conductors were specified in ISO , which is now widely accepted. However, the mechanical aspects of the physical layer connector type and number, colors, labels, pin-outs have yet to be formally specified.
As a result, an automotive ECU will typically have a particular—often custom—connector with various sorts of cables, of which two are the CAN bus lines. Nonetheless, several de facto standards for mechanical implementation have emerged, the most common being the 9-pin D-sub type male connector with the following pin-out:.
This de facto mechanical standard for CAN could be implemented with the node having both male and female 9-pin D-sub connectors electrically wired to each other in parallel within the node.
Bus power is fed to a node's male connector and the bus draws power from the node's female connector. This follows the electrical engineering convention that power sources are terminated at female connectors. Adoption of this standard avoids the need to fabricate custom splitters to connect two sets of bus wires to a single D connector at each node. Such nonstandard custom wire harnesses splitters that join conductors outside the node reduce bus reliability, eliminate cable interchangeability, reduce compatibility of wiring harnesses, and increase cost.
The absence of a complete physical layer specification mechanical in addition to electrical freed the CAN bus specification from the constraints and complexity of physical implementation.
However it left CAN bus implementations open to interoperability issues due to mechanical incompatibility. In order to improve interoperability, many vehicle makers have generated specifications describing a set of allowed CAN transceivers in combination with requirements on the parasitic capacitance on the line.
In addition to parasitic capacitance, 12V and 24V systems do not have the same requirements in terms of line maximum voltage. Indeed, during jump start events light vehicle lines can go up to 24V while truck systems can go as high as 36V. Noise immunity on ISO is achieved by maintaining the differential impedance of the bus at a low level with low-value resistors ohms at each end of the bus.
However, when dormant, a low-impedance bus such as CAN draws more current and power than other voltage-based signaling busses. On CAN bus systems, balanced line operation, where current in one signal line is exactly balanced by current in the opposite direction in the other signal provides an independent, stable 0 V reference for the receivers.
Best practice determines that CAN bus balanced pair signals be carried in twisted pair wires in a shielded cable to minimize RF emission and reduce interference susceptibility in the already noisy RF environment of an automobile. ISO -2 provides some immunity to common mode voltage between transmitter and receiver by having a 0 V rail running along the bus to maintain a high degree of voltage association between the nodes. Also, in the de facto mechanical configuration mentioned above, a supply rail is included to distribute power to each of the transceiver nodes.
The design provides a common supply for all the transceivers. The actual voltage to be applied by the bus and which nodes apply to it are application-specific and not formally specified.
Common practice node design provides each node with transceivers which are optically isolated from their node host and derive a 5 V linearly regulated supply voltage for the transceivers from the universal supply rail provided by the bus. This usually allows operating margin on the supply rail sufficient to allow interoperability across many node types. Typical values of supply voltage on such networks are 7 to 30 V.
However, the lack of a formal standard means that system designers are responsible for supply rail compatibility. ISO -2 describes the electrical implementation formed from a multi-dropped single-ended balanced line configuration with resistor termination at each end of the bus.
As such the terminating resistors form an essential component of the signaling system, and are included, not just to limit wave reflection at high frequency. During a recessive state the signal lines and resistor s remain in a high impedances state with respect to both rails. A recessive state is present on the bus only when none of the transmitters on the bus is asserting a dominant state.
During a dominant state the signal lines and resistor s move to a low impedance state with respect to the rails so that current flows through the resistor. Irrespective of signal state the signal lines are always in low impedance state with respect to one another by virtue of the terminating resistors at the end of the bus. Multiple access on such systems normally relies on the media supporting three states active high, active low and inactive tri-state and is dealt with in the time domain.
A CAN network can be configured to work with two different message or "frame" formats: the standard or base frame format described in CAN 2. The only difference between the two formats is that the "CAN base frame" supports a length of 11 bits for the identifier, and the "CAN extended frame" supports a length of 29 bits for the identifier, made up of the bit identifier "base identifier" and an bit extension "identifier extension".
The distinction between CAN base frame format and CAN extended frame format is made by using the IDE bit, which is transmitted as dominant in case of an bit frame, and transmitted as recessive in case of a bit frame. CAN controllers that support extended frame format messages are also able to send and receive messages in CAN base frame format. All frames begin with a start-of-frame SOF bit that denotes the start of the frame transmission. The CAN standard requires that the implementation must accept the base frame format and may accept the extended frame format, but must tolerate the extended frame format.
In the event of a data frame and a remote frame with the same identifier being transmitted at the same time, the data frame wins arbitration due to the dominant RTR bit following the identifier.
The overload frame contains the two bit fields Overload Flag and Overload Delimiter. There are two kinds of overload conditions that can lead to the transmission of an overload flag:. The start of an overload frame due to case 1 is only allowed to be started at the first bit time of an expected intermission, whereas overload frames due to case 2 start one bit after detecting the dominant bit.
Overload Flag consists of six dominant bits. The overall form corresponds to that of the active error flag. The overload flag's form destroys the fixed form of the intermission field. As a consequence, all other stations also detect an overload condition and on their part start transmission of an overload flag. Overload Delimiter consists of eight recessive bits.
The overload delimiter is of the same form as the error delimiter. The acknowledge slot is used to acknowledge the receipt of a valid CAN frame. Each node that receives the frame, without finding an error, transmits a dominant level in the ACK slot and thus overrides the recessive level of the transmitter. If a transmitter detects a recessive level in the ACK slot, it knows that no receiver found a valid frame.
A receiving node may transmit a recessive to indicate that it did not receive a valid frame, but another node that did receive a valid frame may override this with a dominant. The transmitting node cannot know that the message has been received by all of the nodes on the CAN network.
Often, the mode of operation of the device is to re-transmit unacknowledged frames over and over. This may lead to eventually entering the "error passive" state. Data frames and remote frames are separated from preceding frames by a bit field called interframe space. Interframe space consists of at least three consecutive recessive 1 bits.
Following that, if a dominant bit is detected, it will be regarded as the "Start of frame" bit of the next frame. Overload frames and error frames are not preceded by an interframe space and multiple overload frames are not separated by an interframe space.
Interframe space contains the bit fields intermission and bus idle, and suspend transmission for error passive stations, which have been transmitter of the previous message. To ensure enough transitions to maintain synchronization, a bit of opposite polarity is inserted after five consecutive bits of the same polarity.
The stuffed data frames are destuffed by the receiver. All fields in the frame are stuffed with the exception of the CRC delimiter, ACK field and end of frame which are a fixed size and are not stuffed. In the fields where bit stuffing is used, six consecutive bits of the same polarity or are considered an error.
An active error flag can be transmitted by a node when an error has been detected. The active error flag consists of six consecutive dominant bits and violates the rule of bit stuffing.
Bit stuffing means that data frames may be larger than one would expect by simply enumerating the bits shown in the tables above. The maximum increase in size of a CAN frame base format after bit stuffing is in the case.
The stuffing bit itself may be the first of the five consecutive identical bits, so in the worst case there is one stuffing bit per four original bits. An undesirable side effect of the bit stuffing scheme is that a small number of bit errors in a received message may corrupt the destuffing process, causing a larger number of errors to propagate through the destuffed message.
This reduces the level of protection that would otherwise be offered by the CRC against the original errors. This deficiency of the protocol has been addressed in CAN FD frames by the use of a combination of fixed stuff bits and a counter that records the number of stuff bits inserted. There are several CAN physical layer and other standards:.
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